During the research for a post on Auckland’s volcanoes I found an interesting Maori story about how the volcanoes came to be.The story referred to the Patupaiarehe but who or what were the Patupaiarehe?Obviously a bit of research was required…
In Maori tradition the Patupaiarehe (also sometimes referred to as turehu or pakepakeha) were the first people of New Zealand – the first Tangata Whenua.They are supernatural beings who are rarely seen, fairy creatures of the deep forests and mountains, their houses built from the swirling mists.
They have light skin, red or fair hair and unlike the Maori are never tattooed.There is some debate regarding their size, some say small, others say they are the same size as humans but then there are the traditions where they are giants.Sunlight was a curse to the Patupaiarehe, they only venture out in the night or when the mist was heavy enough to shield them from the sun.
They were hunter/gatherers who ate only raw food – cooked food is an abomination to them.In some stories albino birds and eels, red flax and red eels were considered to be the sole property of the Patupaiarehe and woe betide any Maori caught taking these.
The Patupaiarehe men were known to lure people away from their homes, particularly attractive young women, they used the magical sounds of the koauau or putorino (types of flutes).No harm would befall the young women and they would eventually be returned home.It was believed the cases of red heads and albinos (the urukehu) among Maori were a result of the union between Patupaiarehe and Maori.Unfortunately, Maori men suffered much more, often being mistreated and in some cases killed.
Of course, if you did not want to be abducted by the Patupaiarehe there were several options available.Firstly, you could smear your house with kokowai, this was a mixture of iron oxide with shark oil – the smell was repugnant to them.Secondly, the uses of the cooking ovens or a fire as Patupaiarehe are very much afraid of fire and the smell of cooked food was enough to scare them away.
However, not all was bad between the Patupaiarehe and the Maori.Traditions tell how Maori gained knowledge of net making from the Patupaiarehe as well as makatu (magic arts) and atahu (love charms).String and stick games are also said to have come from these supernatural beings.
In 1894 an elder of the Ngati Maru, Hoani Nahe spoke of the Patupaiarehe and his words were recorded.
“Now listen. When the migration arrived here they found people living in the land – Ngati Kura, Ngati Korakorako and Ngati Turehu, all hapu or sub-tribes of the people called Patupaiarehe. The chiefs of this people were named Tahurangi, Whanawhana, Nukupori, Tuku, Ripiroaitu, Tapu-te-uru and Te Rangipouri. The dwelling places of these people were on the sharp peaks of the high mountains – those in the district of Hauraki (Thames) are Moehau mountain (Cape Colville), Motutere (Castle Hill, Coromandel), Maumaupaki, Whakairi, Kaitarakihi, Te Koronga, Horehore, Whakaperu, Te Aroha-a-uta, Te Aroha-a-tai, and lastly Pirongia, at Waikato. The pa, villages, and houses of this people are not visible, nor actually to be seen by mortal (TangataMaori) eyes – that is, their actual forms. But sometimes some forms are seen, though not actually known to be these people … Sometimes this people is met with by the Maori people in the forests, and they are heard conversing and calling out, as they pass along, but at the same time they never meet face to face, or so that they mutually see one another, but the voices are heard in conversation or shouting, but the people are never actually seen.
On some occasions also, during the night, they are heard paddling their canoes … At such times are heard these questions: ‘What is it?’ ‘Who are the people who were heard urging forward their canoes on the sea during the night?’ or, ‘Who were heard conversing and shouting in the forest?’ The answer would be as follows: ‘They were not Tangata Maori, they were atua, Patupaiarehe, Turehu, or Korakorako.”
Like with so many stories there are those who believe the patupaiarehe are something more than just myth. There is a subculture within New Zealand who firmly believe that they were the descendents of Celtic tribes who discovered New Zealand some 3000 years before the first Polynesians, pointing at tribal groups such as the Ngati Hotu who historically had instances of red hair and fair skin amongst their people when little or no intermarriages were known. This is a complicated issue and not one that can be dealt with lightly, whether true or not, the jury is still out on that one…
Celtic New Zealand – Please note that whilst I do not necessarily agree with all that is written on this site I do believe we are all entitled to conduct research.
Stories and traditions are what make our cultures rich and the Maori have their fair share.Often such traditions are used to make sense of the world around us, I would dare anyone to venture deep into the New Zealand bush and not see the supernatural in its deepest darkest places.
The fog rolled in along the North Cornish coast blanketing the hills. Coming in fast behind it was a weather front of rain and blustering wind. What was I doing out in this weather? Why would anyone venture forth in such conditions, most sensible people were safe inside. But today I was a tourist and nothing was going to stand between myself and the place I wished to visit.
Tomorrow it would close for the winter and my chances of visiting again would be blown (it’s a long to come from NZ). My destination? The Museum of Witchcraft in the wee coastal village of Boscastle on the North Cornish coast. I had also dragged the husband and kids along (I needed a driver and there’s this funny law which says you can’t leave the kids at home alone…)
The museum is the home to the worlds’ largest collection of “witchcraft-related objects dating from the time of the witch-hunts to the present day.” A friend recently asked why I would want to visit the museum. Well, in short it is a fascinating subject because it tells a story of how people have viewed not only themselves but also the world around them on a very deep and personal level. So my question to her was – why wouldn’t you?
The museum was not always in Boscastle, originally it was based on the Isle of Man in Castleton. It was first opened by Cecil Williamson in 1951 (the same year the Witchcraft Act was repealed successfully). He employed Gerald Gardner – the father of modern witchcraft – as “Resident Witch” and the museum was very successful. But eventually as things go, the two men felt the museum should go in different directions and Williamson sold the building to Gardner and moved his collection to Windsor and then onto the Cotswolds. Unfortunately a lack of tolerance in the local area resulted in the museum being firebombed several times. Once more Williamson moved his collection but this time to Boscastle, where it has been ever since. The current owner is Graham King, who bought it from Williamson in 1996.
In 2004 the whole of Boscastle was brought to its knees when a flash flood filled the valley – the town was swamped by over three metres of flood waters. The museum was severely damaged however this did not deter King – clean up of the museum began as soon as possible with every inch of mud being sifted and every item found meticulously cleaned and disinfected. During this time the museum layout was redesigned and gradually the museum rose from mud and sewage all brand new. I recently read on Facebook, that once more the museum is having a bit of face lift for no other reason than “change is good”.
The museum itself is divided into sections, each section dealing with one particular aspect of the craft. The descriptions below are from a pamphlet bought at the museum during my visit.
Images of Witchcraft – “Although many people today are sceptical about the power of magic, there can be no doubt about the enduring power of the image of the witch.
Persecution – “Our display about the witch-hunts begins with a 17th Century copy of Daemonologie – a book condemning magic written by King James I. King James wrote it after personally interrogating the suspects in the North Berwick witchcraft case, who were accused of raising a storm to sink his ship”.
The Wheel of the Year – “Modern witches meet on, and celebrate, ancient seasonal festivals and call them Sabbats”.
Stangs – “Modern witches refer to forked or skull-topped staffs as stangs”.
Sacred Sites – “Ancient sacred sites are very important to many people who practise Modern Pagan Witchcraft today…however, the witches of the past centuries also valued sacred sites as places to practise magic.”
The Hare and Shape-Shifting – “Many legends and folktales tell of witches turning into animals – particularly hares, cats and owls. A traditional Cornish term for “cursed” is “owl-blasted”.
The Magic of Christianity – “Trial records show that most people who practised magic during the witch-hunts were Christians, and often used the sacred object of Christianity in their spells.
Herbs and Healing – “Healing has always been an important part of magic. Many people arrested for witchcraft were respected healers using charms and herbal remedies.
The Wise Woman – “Our wise woman in her cottage shows just how different real life witches were from the stereotype of the ugly hag muttering curses.”
Granny Boswell – a well known Cornish wise woman.
Protection Magic – “The use of objects as protection charms (also known as amulets) is one of the most ancient types of magic – and also one still widely used thoughout the world today.”
Magic in Wartime – “This display shows some of the ways people have used magic to help them cope with the stress and danger of war.”
Mandrakes – “According to William Shakespeare, human shaped mandrakes roots were worn as good luck charms.”
Curses – “Did people really use magic to put curses on their enemies? Of course they did!…Cursing was an instrument of natural justice, and a form of anger management.”
Ritual Magic and The Golden Dawn – “At the heart of the display are the colourful and dramatic tools developed by the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn.”
The Richel Collection – “This collection of magical objects from the Netherlands bequeathed to the museum in 2000, is complex, challenging and sometimes downright mystifying – though sexual symbolism is a recurring theme.”
The Devil and the Horned God – “There can be little doubt that the horned Devil of medieval art had its origins in earlier horned deities of nature and fertility, such as the Egyptian goddess Hathor, the Celtic god Cerunnos and the Roman god Pan.”
Baphomet and the Green Man
Fortune Telling and Divination – “Of all the objects in the museum, the one that most intrigues and fascinates visitors is the dark mirror used by the museums founder Cecil Williamson.”
Spells and Charms – “Many of the exhibits in this museum illustrate a central principle of folk magic, that there is magic all around us in the natural objects of everyday life”.
Sea Witchcraft – “There are many accounts of witches selling the wind to sailors, by magically knotting it into a length of rope on a windy day.”
Tools of the Witch – “Knitting needles might not seem an obvious magical tool – but stitches are really knots, and knot magic is ancient and widespread.”
Modern Witchcraft – “Many of the objects in this section are personal and unusual, such as the Peruvian magic dolls used by Brownie Pate, or the painted altar stone made by Iain Steele, with its dragon like symbol in the centre.”
This may not be a museum for everyone, some might even find the occasional display uncomfortable (the sideways looks I kept getting from the hubby was proof of that). Even so, the effort to visit should be made. To learn about and educate ourselves in the ways of the craft and its history means that the past won’t be repeated. When it comes down to it, today witchcraft/paganism is just another form of spirituality which provides harmony and solace in the lives who follow that path.
It was a fascinating museum and well worth the trip, the dreary weather adding to the atmosphere. To visit on a bright sunny day when Boscastle is thronging with tourists…
Contact details: The Museum of Witchcraft, The Harbour, Boscastle, Cornwall PL35 0HD.
In the second novel – A Megalithic Moon – our heroine, Sarah, finds herself transported back in time some five thousand years (ish). For archaeologists and those with an interest in the past this is the Late Neolithic, a time of massive stone constructions, of megaliths, of stone circles.
For many years stone circles have fascinated me and so I was really very keen to weave these monuments into Sarah’s story. There are some 1300 recorded stone circles in Britain and this is not the place to discuss each and every one of them. Instead I wish to look at two stone circles in particular which feature in A Megalithic Moon, Boscawen Un and Loanhead of Daviot. For those who want to find out more about stone circles I highly recommend Aubrey Burl’s The Stone Circles of Britain, Ireland and Brittany published by Yale University Press (2000).
In the very early pages of A Megalithic Moon the reader is introduced to one of my all time favourite sites – Boscawen Un – a stone circle in the heart of West Penwith, Cornwall.
Not a true circle the stone ring measures 24.9m and 21.9m in diameters making it more elliptical than circular. The ring consists of nineteen stones varying in height from 0.9m to 1.3m and has two unique features. Firstly there is a central stone which leans sharply to the north east. Originally it was believed that the lean on the central stone was the result of people digging for treasure believed to be at its base but recent archaeological work has confirmed that the stone was deliberately placed in the ground at a lean. Another interesting fact about the central stone is the presence of two faint, but real, carved axeheads near the base which can best be seen at the midsummer sunrise.
Secondly all but one of the stones are of local granite, the odd one out is a solid chunk of white quartz. For those of a pagan leaning, the quartz stone is significant as it serves to represent the feminine lunar deity (and thus the central stone is the male). Quartz is often found on sites of ritual significance, the Duloe stone circle (also in Cornwall) is smaller but all of the stones are quartz. Excavations at the Hurlers, a stone circle complex on Bodmin Moor, uncovered traces of a quartz pavement which highlights the importance of this material in the rituals of the past. It is easy to imagine how the quartz in its freshly cut state might glow in the light of the moon. The use of quartz is not restricted to Cornwal and much further afield in Aberdeenshire the recumbent stone circles often feature quartz.
The circle was restored in 1862 when three stones were re-erected and the hedge which originally cut through the ring was diverted around it. Historically Boscawen Un was believed to be the Beisgawen yn Dumnonia named in the Welsh Triads as one of the ‘Three Principal Gorsedds’. So much so, in 1928 the modern Cornish Gorsedd was inaugurated here. Unfortunately recent academic work by Rachel Bromwich revealed that the Triads were in fact an eighteenth century forgery.
There is a west facing gap which may represent an entrance not unlike the one found at the Merry Maidens, another well known stone circle in West Cornwall, which can be seen from Boscawen Un.
Much later in A Megalithic Moon the reader is introduced to another kind of stone circle but much farther away, those of north east Scotland in Aberdeenshire. Recumbent stone circles are so called due to a common feature of a large single stone lying ‘recumbent’ between two flanking uprights. The recumbent always occupies a position on the circles arc between SSE – SW and the uprights are graded in size from the smallest on the northern arc and the tallest flanking the recumbent. They are unique to this area of Scotland and are not found elsewhere except for in the south west of Ireland.
Unfortunately, agricultural practices of the 17th and 18th centuries resulted in many of the circles being destroyed. Some well preserved examples which are worth a visit include Loanhead of Daviot, Easter Aquorthies, Sunhoney and Tyrebagger.
Loanhead of Daviot
This recumbent stone circle is situated near the summit of gentle hill overlooking the village of Daviot and few miles from Inveruries. Excavations conducted in 1934 provided evidence for the longevity of the site from the late Neolithic through to the Iron Age. The site itself consists of two concentric rings of stone with a central cairn. In addition adjacent to the main stone circle is a late Bronze Age cremation cemetery.
The outer circle is 19.5m in diameter and is made up of ten upright stones and one recumbent. Around the base of each upright a small cairn of stones were piled and in some evidence of burials were found. Several of the uprights also have faint cupmarks engraved into the stones surface.
The inner circle is 16.5m in diameter and forms a kerb of low stones to the central cairn which was built over a cremation pyre. Here some 2.3kgs of burnt bone lay in the central space. Interestingly the type of stone to be found in the central cairn consists mostly of quartz.
Just north of Loanhead a second recumbent is known, however all that remains is the recumbent itself and its two flankers. A third circle was recorded in the 18th century to the south of Loanhead in the village of Daviot, sadly nothing remains of this circle.
Stone Circles and the Moon
A great deal has been written about the astronomical associations between megaliths and the night sky. In relation to stone circles it was Aubrey Burl who pointed out that a circle is not the most efficient means to observe the night sky, rather a single line of stones would work considerably better. Indeed there are scattered throughout the British landscape enigmatic lines of stones and often in association with stone circles, such as the previously mentioned Hurlers on Bodmin Moor.
So if stone circles are not for astronomical observations, what are they for? Increasingly, there is a body of work which is leaning towards a lunar and/or solar explanation. Often the emphasis is on the solstices, the rising and setting sun, midwinter and midsummer being the most popular. However, there is some suggestion that the spring and autumn solstices were just as important if not more so, particularly in Cornwall where the people of the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age were most likely to be pastoralists rather than agriculturalists.
In regard to the recumbents of Aberdeenshire it appears to be the procession of the moon which was important. Thus the recumbent were laid in line with the southern moon but not as it rose or set but when it was actually up in the sky.
“The majority of the recumbent lie in the arc between the moon’s major rising and setting…” Aubrey Burl p227 The Stone Circles of Britain, Ireland and Brittany.
Another feature of these recumbent circles is the presence of both quartz and cupmarks and again an association with the moon could be made. The quartz shining brightly in the moonlight perhaps representing pieces of the moon itself and the cupmarks themselves do seem to generally align with either the major or minor moonset or moonrise.
“To the users of the circles it may have been the steady procession of the moon above the recumbent that was wanted rather than a particular moment, minutes of moonlight when quartz glowed luminescently and when nocturnal ceremonies where performed.” Aubrey Burl p226 ibid.
And so, all of these elements are woven throughout Sarah’s story and have become my inspiration for the Daughters of the Moon – the Myhres an Loor.
Please find below some links to interesting websites about stone circles and megaliths in general. Enjoy!
In ‘A Viking Moon’- the first of Sarah’s adventures – our heroine is transported back in time to Viking Denmark. The story itself is set in roughly the mid 800s AD, a time of great change throughout Europe. The following is a brief overview of the Vikings as encountered by Sarah. For those who would like a lot more detail, my apologies but this is not the place for a lengthy discussion on Vikings. There are some great sources of information out there on the internet or even in your local library.
Sarah’s story begins when she comes into contact with a Viking rune stone. There are large numbers of rune stones throughout Scandinavia (some 3000), their name deriving from the runes written upon their surface. Runes were a form of lettering used by the Vikings. Rune stones were erected between the 4th and 12th Centuries and can be found anywhere the Vikings went. They served mainly as a memorial to the deceased but were also used to mark territory, explain inheritance, boast and bring glory and to tell of important events.
During the first twenty years or so of the 9th century, Danish politics were characterized by constant infighting and changes in kingship. Often kingship was held jointly as was the case in 812/13 where Harald Klak and Reginfred ruled jointly but only until the sons of Godfred (an earlier king who died in 810) turned up and promptly exiled them both. Harald and Reginfred then recruited an army but failed to win back the crown. By 819 Godfred’s sons were bickering amongst themselves and all goes to seed until finally Horik remains and manages to hold onto power until 853 when he was overthrown by a rebellion within his own family. It is during the reign of King Horik that Sarah finds herself and just prior to the civil war that was about to erupt.
Kings during this early period were not the most powerful, because most communities were loyal to their local chieftain. A king had to conduct religious rituals and lead his subjects into battle. He was expected to keep a force of fighting men and ships to protect his people and their property from attack. But when a king died, a new king would be chosen from the members of the reigning royal family. A person’s age, health, reputations and popularity were all taken into account.
The steading of Geir is situated in the southern part of the island of Zealand or Sjoeland as it was known at the time. One of the greatest concerns at this time were the raids from lands across the sea. It was not just the Danes, Norse and Swedes who raided their neighbours. In Sarah’s story the Kurlanders/Kurshes were often considered a great threat. Kurland (Courland) was situated in the north west corner of what is modern day Latvia. In reality the situation got so bad that in 853 the Danes launched a campaign against the Kurlanders, there was a major sea battle and the Danes were defeated. Another contributing factor to the brief civil war in Denmark that wiped out many of the contenders to the throne and ended Horic’s rule.
Geir was once a ‘styraesman’ or ship commander who through many successful raiding trips accrued enough wealth to buy land and a steading. It was possible using wealth and ambition for any man to become a member of the aristocracy and so it was for Geir who by the time Sarah turns up is referred to as a Jarl or Lord. Apart from kings society was divided into three main groups Jarls, Karls and Thralls.
Jarls were often the wealthiest and most powerful people, owning and ruling large tracts of land. A Jarl would usually have a small band of household warriors to fight for him if needed. The second tier of society belonged to the karls. They were free men and women who sometimes owned their own farmsteads or rented from the landowners. In Viking times the eldest son would inherit his father’s land, younger sons would need to make their own way either by joining raiding parties, become professional warriors or merchants. Some could become hunters, fishermen or crafts men. The poorest landless karls were servants or farm workers. At the very bottom of Viking society were the Thralls these were slaves who had no rights and were bought and sold like any other piece of property. Most slaves were captured during raids or battles, some were karls who had lost their freedom after going bankrupt or committing a crime.
Viking women enjoyed far greater respect and independence than many of their contemporaries in other parts of the world. They were allowed to own land and property and sometimes a daughter would inherit a share of her parents’ wealth. However, a women’s status varied according to her position in society. Thus, Astrid as wife of the Jarl would have considerably more freedom and authority then the wife of a farm worker. When a woman’s husband was away either trading or raiding, she was responsible for the smooth operation of the business or farm in his absence. A noble woman such as Astrid would be expected to make decisions and organise protection of the steading should it be necessary.
Some women had other jobs apart from being wives and mothers. There were female skalds (storytellers), carvers, merchants and others who played a part in the religious ceremonies. Certain women were thought to be prophetesses who could tell the future and give people advice in their daily lives.
Messing about in Boats
Actually the Vikings were highly skilled shipbuilders, producing some of the finest ships of their time. They were essential to the Viking way of life. They built vessels of many different shapes and sizes. In 1962 five ships were excavated near to the city of Roskilde in Denmark. There was a ‘knarr’ an ocean going trading vessel, with an open hold amidships, and only needed 6-8 men to crew; a ‘skeid’ or ocean going warship which was 30m long and 4m wide with space for 60 oars or a crew of 65-70 men; a ‘byrding’, a small trading or transport vessel only needing a crew of 5-8 men, wind powered and perfect for the Danish and Baltic coast; ‘snekke’, a small warship built for speed and maneuverability only needing a crew of 30men. The last vessel was rowing/sailing combo probably used for fishing or seal hunting.
The oarsmen did not have seats instead they would sit on their sea chests (wooden chests that would contain their personal belongings). If a vessel had need of a sail it would most likely have been made from wool with leather reinforcing strips. Another feature of most vessels would have been the steering oar – this was positioned on the right hand side at the rear and gives rise to the English word ‘starboard’ coming from the Norse word ‘styra’ or ‘to steer’. The vessels themselves were clinker built meaning that the planks of timber that made up the body would be overlapping each other and then the spaces between would be filled with moss, wool or animal hair drenched in tar to ensure water tightness. The decks would be open with little or no protection from the elements, at the best an oilskin tarpaulin was rigged up bivouac style.
The most famous type of vessel is the ‘drekar’ or dragon ship, the name derived from the wooden carvings on the front of the ships. They were the finest of all warships, very ornate and well built. A common misconception is that warships would sail with the shields over the oar ports – it is unlikely this happened unless in port as it would be far too easy to lose a valuable shield overboard.
The Vikings used the sun, the moon and the stars to navigate but they would also use the depth and temperature of the ocean to judge their position. They also used their knowledge of the habits of seabirds and mammals to guide them.
There are a great many books and internet sites that deal with the plethora of Viking gods, goddesses and all things otherworldly. Viking deities were divided into two groups the Vanir who came before and were a race of peaceful gods, Freya and Frey being examples and then there is the Aesir who came later and deposed many of the Vanir. They were a warrior race of gods and include gods such as Thor and Odin. The following is a brief (and probably unsatisfactory) account of those that Sarah encounters in ‘A Viking Moon’.
The first goddess to turn up is Freya an indigenous goddess who is being held hostage by the Aesir to maintain spiritual peace. She is very powerful and her areas of expertise include love, sex, fertility, magic, witchcraft and death. Her priestesses are called ‘volvas’ and are greatly feared by the general population. In later times she is labelled the ‘Queen of the Witches’ by Christian priests and her followers were heavily persecuted. Cats are also special to Freya, her chariot is drawn by two huge gray cats called Bee Gold (honey) and Tree Gold (amber). To be kind to cats was to invite Freya’s blessings. In the story Astrid offers a prayer to Freya but at the same time she is spinning wool. Spinning has a magical quality about it and was once associated with divination, the magical art of transformation and the cycle of life. But it is also associated with the goddess Frigga, Odin’s wife.
Later in the story Sarah has an encounter with a ‘volur, women who were believed to have prophetic powers. These women would travel around the countryside staying at the halls of local leaders, interpreting dreams and predicting the future. During the ceremony the chief prophetess would sit on a platform or special chair whilst her companions would chant sacred songs and she fell into a trance. It was believed that her soul left her body and soared over the earth giving her great wisdom and insight. The ‘volur’ would carry a wand of alder to signify her power as a representative of the goddess.
In the final chapters Sarah meets Thor and Aegir (sort of). Thor was and is a very popular Viking god and as such much has been written about him. He is the god of thunder, lightening, wind, rain, physical strength, good weather and crops. As such he was very popular among the farmers of the Viking countryside. His hammer was called Mjollnir, archaeologically his popularity can be attested to by the significant numbers of hammer pendents found. He was regarded as a straightforward and reliable god even if he was not the sharpest knife in the draw. Aegir is regarded as the god of the sea and fishing and would be well known to the sons of Geir. It is not unusual for sudden and violent storms to sweep across the Baltic, sometimes it is even possible to think that have been sent by the gods…
A Thor hammer pendent (modern design by Hayman Celtic Jewellery).
On a final note, sacrifices to the gods and goddesses were common. The kind of sacrifice made would very much depend on what you wanted. They could range from a simple offering of food at a field-side shrine for a good harvest to the death of an prize animal or even in some cases a person perhaps in exchange for success in battle. It went without saying that a simple prayer to deity was not enough, there must be payment if you wanted them to listen.
Archaeology, History and a little bit of time travel…