Tag Archives: New Zealand

The Devonport Museum

A recent addition to my television viewing is a locally produced show – ‘Heritage Rescue’.  Along the veins of a reality tv show and borrowing loosely from home makeover shows and the UK’s ever popular ‘Time Team’ (the shows presenter once worked on the latter as a humble archaeologist), Heritage Rescue visits small local museums, spending time (usually around a week) and resources to inject new life into these establishments.  More often than not they operate purely on the fuel of volunteers.

One such museum was the Devonport Museum in Auckland – I am sorry to say that even though I have lived only a fifteen minute drive from this musuem I had never visited…a fact I hastened to amend after watching the two episodes dedicated to giving the wee museum a new lease of life.  Having never been to the museum prior to its appearance on the telly I can’t compare so the photos that follow are of the new look museum.

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The one thing that has obviously remained the same is the essential fabric of the building.  The museum is housed in an old Presbyterian church which was moved to it present day location in an old quarry on the side of Mt Cambria in 1978.

On entering the museum to the left there is a timeline of Devonports history with a superb diorama of the local landscape taking centre stage.  I was fascinated to learn that once upon time it was possible to get a boat through at high tide directly from Narrow Neck beach to the Ngatringa Bay past what is now the golf course and along the present day Seabreeze Rd.

Devonport itself is an area rich in history, not just because it was one of the earliest nineteenth century settlements but also it was well utilised by Maori with its safe landing beaches, excellent access to kai moana and fertile soils on the slopes of its volcanic cones.  Jutting out into the wider Hauraki Gulf it also provides an excellent vantage point of all who come and go into Auckland.  The museum effectively reflects this tapestry of Devonports past.

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There are displays on the history of ship/boat building in the area, we are told that the foreshore was a hive of industry in the nineteenth century.  The above picture shows a model of New Zealands one and only remaining wooden light house which can be found just off the tip of Devonport, no longer being used as a light house but preserved as a historic site.

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Shop window displays using real shop windows from the towns retail past gives the visitor an impression of what the main street may have once looked like.

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Here a display panel gives information on Devonports main street – Victoria Road – who lived/worked and played there.

Devonport is well known for it old villas and colonial cottages – the museum has two models of these types of houses on display.  The one on the right is complete with washing on the line and a larder stocked with local produce.

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An old map of Devonport – the Takapuna Racecourse is now a golf course…

Overall our visit to the Devonport museum was very enjoyable, helped along by a friendly and informative volunteer who was able to answer my questions.  There is even a kids corner with old fashioned games for the littlies to have a go at and in a seperate room a research space is well appointed for those to local/family histories.  It is well worth a visit if you are in the  area and even if you’re not.

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Devonport Museum website

The Buried Village of Te Wairoa – some photos.

On June 10th 1886 Mt Tarawera erupted along a line of craters that extended sixteen kilometres and the space of a few hours the nearby village of Te Wairoa and the world famous Pink and White Terraces were covered in over a metre of volcanic mud and ash.

The death toll for the area was believed to have been as high as 153 – Te Wairoa at the time was a bustling village with two tourist hotels serving visitors to the Pink and White Terraces, two stores, a school, a blacksmith and a bakery.   By the end of the day not a single village house was left standing.

Today the site of Te Wairoa consists of several hectares of fields within which the visitor can walk amongst the excavated remains on the village.  There is also a lovely river walk and a musuem dedicated to the Maori and Victorian artefacts recovered from the site.  The following are a few of the photos which I  took during a visit in 2015.

Some of the displays from the museum

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The remains of the Rotomahana Hotel.
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and the bakers oven…

The unexcavated remains of two of the many houses in the area.

 

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A reconstruction of a simple Maori house – all of these were destroyed by the mud and ash.  Today their remains are marked by wooden frames and the stones of fireplaces. 

 

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The hearth inside the above reconstructed house.

 

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A Maori storehouse found under the ash layer beside the stream.  It is a rare example of the use of stone in building practices.

 

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A close up of the carving to the side of the storehouse.

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The above is the house of Tuhoto, a 100yr old tohunga (tribal priest) who bore the brunt of the blame for the disaster.  He had openly condemned the people for their decadent lifestyle and had predicted that disaster would fall on the community.  When the mountain exploded, he like so many was buried in his hut and local Maori were so angry they refused to dig him out.  He was eventually rescued by the Europeans (four days later) but died not long after in a sanitorium.

 

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Inside an excavated house – showing the depth of the mud and ash that fell on Te Wairoa.

For more information on visiting The Buried Village of Te Wairoa go to http://www.buriedvillage.co.nz/

Another article from NZ Geographic on the Tarawera eruption can be found here

The cover photo is of Lake Tarawera with the mountain in the background.

 

 

 

 

 

A Tale of Two Pa

The Coromandel is a place rich in Maori history, the most obvious archaeological site are the many pa found on the coastal headlands.  The following are a few photos taken during a weekend in the coastal township of Whitianga.

Before we get to the photos, it is probably necessary for me to give you a brief explanation on what a Pa is, particularly  for those of you who are not familiar with the term.  The word ‘pa’ can refer to any Maori settlement, defended or otherwise, but most commonly it is used to refer to a type of site known as a hillfort – fortified settlements with palisades and defensive terraces.  The majority of pa sites are found in the North Island from Lake Taupo northwards – over 5000 have been recorded to date.  You can read more about Pa here.

The two Pa mentioned in the title of this blog are the Hereheretaura Pa and Whitianga Rock – both were Ngati Hei strongholds, although the latter suffered during a raid by a war party of Ngai te Rangi.  The reserve where Hereheretaura Pa can be found is at the southern end of Hahei Beach is one of two pa in the reserve.  The other – Hahei Pa –  is on the ridge above the track (seen below) but with minimal defensive earthworks unlike Hereheretaura Pa.

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Walking in the Te Pare Reserve – Hereheretaura Pa in the distance.
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Hereheretaura Pa – the lines of banks and ditches can be seen in the early morning light.
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One of several bank and ditch earthworks clearly visible at Hereheretaura Pa.
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The view from Hereheretaura Pa looking northwards.

Whitianga Rock is on the opposite side of the estuary from Whitianga, a short ferry ride across from town takes you to the start point for a walk around the site.  The site is positioned on a thin finger of land jutting into the estuary harbour with steep cliffs on three sides.  By the time Captain James Cook arrived in 1769 the site had already been abandoned, even so it impressed Cook enough for him to state;

“A little with[in] the entrance of the river on the East side is a high point or peninsula jutting out into the River on which are the remains of one of their Fortified towns,  the Situation is such that the best Engineer in Europe could not have choose’d a better for a small number of men to defend themselves against a greater, it is strong by nature and made more so by Art”.

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Information board at the start of the walk.
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House terraces on the landward side.
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The first bank and ditch earthworks and now a path down to Brick Bay.
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Post holes for palisades ground into rock.
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More palisade postholes…
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An artists recreation of the palisade as evidenced by the postholes in the previous picture.
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An artist reconstruction of how the site looked prior to the devastating raid. The line across the middle is the earthwork mentioned above which is now a lane leading to Brick Bay on the southern side.
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Artist reconstruction
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All across the site are numerous shellfish middens – not surprising given the sites position.
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Another midden…
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And another midden…
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The view from the top over to Whitianga township.

A Visit to the Shire

On a fine but crisp morning the family and I made the two hour journey to the set of Hobbiton where the scenes for the Shire were filmed for both the Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit movies.  I am big fan of the works of JRR Tolkien and whilst I was dubious about the movies they still have much going for them.  I was also dubious about visiting what is obviously a place with the overseas tourist in mind.  However, I must admit to being pleasantly surprised – Hobbiton was delightful!  The managment work hard to maintain the spirit of what Tolkien describes in loving detail.  My visit was a balm to my frazzled self and the following are a few photos of our time there, I only wish we could have spent more time there.

Hobbiton is situated on the Alexander farm near Matamata, Waikato and was first discovered during an aerial reconaissance for suitable filming locations for the Lord of the Rings trilogy.  The original set was constructed of untreated timber, ply and polystyrene – it was always the intention to return the site to its original condition.  However, with the filming of The Hobbit an agreement was struck between Peter Jackson and the Alexander family and Hobbiton was born, this time with more permanent materials.

The following are just a few of the many Hobbit holes, each individual in their own way with gardens and furniture.  It seems as if the occupants have just stepped away and will be back in a tick…

“In a hole in the ground there lived a hobbit.  Not a nasty, dirty, wet hole, filled with the ends of worms and an oozy smell, nor yet a dry, bare, sandy hole with nothing in it to sit down on or to eat: it was a hobbit-hole, and that means comfort.”  (The Hobbit.  J.R.R. Tolkien).

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Of course we were all looking forward to getting to the most important Hobbit hole of them all – Bagend…

“It had a perfectly round door like a porthole, painted gree, with a shiny, yellow brass knob in the exact middle. The door opened on to a tube-shaped hall like a tunnel: a very comfortable tunnel without smoke, with panelled walls, and floors tiled and carpeted…” (The Hobitt. J.R.R. Tolkien)

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The oak tree in the picture above is an artificial tree made from steel and silicon with over 250,000 fake leaves…

 

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My daughter was very happy to be standing outside of Bagend.

 

From here our guide led us down to the Party field with its huge tree (this one is real and the reason for choosing this small part of the Waikato for a film set).

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And then it was on over the bridge to the Green Dragon for mug of ale and food…

 

Two very happy hours later we turn and say goodbye to what can only be described as a magical place…

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“By some curious chance one morning long ago in the quiet of the world, when there was less noise and more green, and the hobbits were still numerous and properous, and Bilbo Baggins was standing at the door after breakfast smoking an enormous long wooden pipe that reached nearly down to his wooly toes (neatly brushed) – Gandalf came by.” (The Hobbit. J.R.R. Tolkien)

www.hobbitontours.com

Ahuahu – Archaeology on Great Mercury Island.

Yesterday was the first day of New Zealand Archaeology Week, it is the first time in New Zealand that archaeology has been celebrated with its own ‘week’.  As part of this celebration of the past I attended a lecture at the Auckland Museum about the long term archaeological project being undertaken on Great Mercury Island entitled The Changing Face of Archaeology – The application of technology to the Ahuahu Great Mercury Island Archaeological Project.  The lecture was delivered by Louise Furey, Rebecca Phillipps and Joshua Emmitt.

Great Mercury Island is situated off the east coast of the Coromandel Penninsula and as the name would suggest is the largest island in the Mercury Group.  The purpose of the project is to examine the history of the Maori occupation on the island.  As an island it provides the ideal opportunity to study a landscape as a whole and how people utilised and interacted with the landscape over time.  This post is not a comprehensive study of the archaeology of the island, it is only a brief foray into what is a complex landscape.  I have included links for those who wish to do read more about the work that is being carried out by the archaeologists.

Mercury Island Chart Picture

There is certainly plenty of archaeology on the island to keep the archaeologists busy for quite some time.  Of that which is visible above ground there are twenty-three Pa (defended sites with ditches and banks), large areas of gardens (recognisable by the lines of cleared stones), kumara storage pits, stone working sites and shell middens.  As recent excavations have indicated there is even more evidence lying beneath the surface.

Prior to the current project the island was subject to two other single event excavations.  The first being undertaken in 1954 in the early days of New Zealand Archaeology by then then newly appointed lecturer in archaeology at the University of Auckland Jack Golson.  With a party of archaeology students he excavated a terrace on the Stingray Point Pa (Matakawau) identifying two kumara pits, each pit had more than 80 post holes suggesting a long period of rebuilding the roof structures.  Golson’s work was neve published although this is soon to be rectified.

 

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A reconstruction drawing of how such storage structures may have looked like.

 

In 1984 Professor Geoffrey Irwin of the University of Auckland excavated a Pa in Huruhi Harbour. In 2009 a sever storm eroded about ten metres of sand from White’s Beach to reveal a shell midden and a rich charcoal layer.  Bones from dogs and fish were found within the midden which was dated by radiocarbon to c.1400AD.

From 2012 the University of Auckland and the Auckland Museum have been working in conjunction with Ngati Hei on the previously mentioned long term project.  The island is visited on regular basis with the main excavation season being held in Febuary, which is also a training dig for archaeology students from the university.  The lecture held yesterday focussed on some of the finds from the excavations such as the large quantities of obsidian flakes some of which come from as far afield as Taupo, Mayor Island and closer to home on the Coromandel Peninsula.  Although work/research is still ongoing it is becoming clearer how important Ahuahu is in our understanding of the early prehistory of New Zealand.

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Field School Dig Diaries

Because ultimately excavation is destruction it has long been universally acknowledged how important it is to record as much detail as possible.  In the past this was often a labour intensive activity, if done at all.  Today’s archaeologists now have a raft of technological tools at there disposal and at Great Mercury they are taking full advantage of what is available.  The technology being used on site to record every find, feature and layer includes total stations, laser scanners and drones are in everyday tools for these excavations.

You Tube has several video’s of work being done on the island – the following are links to a couple to get you started if you are interested.

Daily video diary

Archaeology is Amazing

On the Auckland Museum website there is also information on the project  – Great Mercury Island Expedition.

The Making of Maori Society

Variable horticulture within a small garden on Ahuahu

 

 

The Mercury Bay Museum

Whenever I go somewhere new my first stop (after a leg stretch and a coffee) is usually to the local museum.  I have a deep fondness for museums and the people who put their heart and soul into their creation and upkeep.  The Mercury Bay Museum was one of those musuems where the peoples love of their town and surroundings was evident.

Our first visit to Whitianga on the Coromandel Peninsula was in the winter and unfortunately the musuem was closed however we had much better luck on our second visit.  Situated on The Esplanade just opposite the wharf, this small but well thought out musuem tells the history of the area beginning with Kupe who gave the local area the name Te Whitianga nui a Kupe or The Big Crossing Place of Kupe.

 

Originally the site of the museum was an urupa or cemetary for  the local Maori iwi called Ngati Hei up until the 1870s.  But when European curio hunters violated the tapu of the site members of the Ngati Hei removed the remains of their people and reinterred them safely elsewhere.  The Maori history of the area represents only a small part of the musuem and was my one criticism of this otherwise outstanding museum.  The displays of Maori artefacts were not clearly labelled and the display was largely restricted to the walls of the walkway as you entered and could be easily overlooked – personally I think the museum designers may have missed a beat in down playing the 800 years or so of Maori history.

 

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Examples of Tahanga basalt stone tools (and other random stone tools) – this material was traded far and wide – the lack of information on this dispay was disappointing, only personal knowledge helped be identify what the objects were.

 

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Poster on the wall about the Tahanga basalt quarry at Opito
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A display of Maori digging sticks.

The Museum is very child friendly – my daughter in particular enjoyed dressing up as Captain Cook who visited the area in 1769 on the HMS Endeavour.  It was he who gave the area its European name of Mercury Bay after taking his longitude and latitude from the viewing of the transit of the sun across the planet Mercury.

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As you head further into the museum there is a significant display on the wreck of The Buffalo which gave the local beach its name (Buffalo Beach), the Kauri room and shanty shack – Kauri were an important part of the economy in the 1800s, either as logs or from the fossilied resin/gum – a 1950s school room, a 1960s bach, a smithy, two rooms displaying birds of the area and displays regarding the importance of the fishing industry (commercially and recreationally) and agriculture to the area.  A butter churn display harks back to the days when the museum was once a dairy factory producing butter from cream from all over the Mercury Bay area.  The musuem also holds an extensive collection of photos covering the life and times of Mercury Bay and its residents.

 

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The Karangahake Gorge and its Industrial Archaeology.

Summertime in New Zealand means roadtrips and exploring all that our lovely country has to offer.  Me and mine decided to spend some time in the goldmining town of Waihi and of course as always this meant a lesson in history, in particular the area around the Karangahake Gorge.

The Karangahake Gorge is situated between the Coromandel and Kaimai ranges and was formed by the flow of the Ohinemuri River.  It’s steep sides are covered in native bush, a haven for those wanting to experience the great outdoors.  There are plenty of walks and cycle trails to enjoy or you can simply sit by the river and enjoy a picnic.  However not so long ago the visitor would have been greeted by an entirely different scene.

On this visit we did the Windows Walk which takes you past and through several of the stamping batterys and the many associated building ruins then into the old tramway tunnels along the Waitawheta Gorge (an offshoot of the Karangahake Gorge).  Unlike other goldmining areas, alluvial gold is rare in the gorge and almost all of the gold and silver recovered from here was done by deep quartz mining.  This meant only the large well funded companies could afford to operate in the gorge.  The three main players were the Talisman Mining Company, The Woodstock Mining Company and the Crown Mining Company.  (The latter will ring some bells with those of you interested in Cornish mining history as they were a major player in the mining industry of Cornwall.  In fact many of the miners came from Cornwall which was at the time undergoing a decline in mining.  Their skills in hard rock mining was in great demand in colonial lands).  Today so much of the ruins are covered in dense bush, their edges softened by vegetation and with the sound of either the Ohinemuri or Waitawheta rivers filling your ears it is hard to imagine this as a place of heavy industry.

A continous rythmic thumping once filled the air here, as stamper batteries (gold recovery plants) of the Talisman, Woodstock and Crown Mining Companies pulverised quartz rock to free the gold within.” (taken from an information board at the beginning of the walk)

Much of the ore came from the steep sided Waitwheta Gorge and was then transported via aerial tramway across the gorge to the tramway and delivered to the stamping battery where it would undergo a series of crushings to extract the gold and silver which was then smelted into bullion bars.  The Talisman and Crown Mines were two of the largest of their type in New Zealand and together produced in the region of four million ounces of gold bullion.

The following are some of the photographs taken during our time exploring the industrial archaeology of the Karangahake Gorge.

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All that remains of the Talisman powerhouse on the banks of the Ohinemuri River.
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Several phases of building are present at the Talisman powerhouse – here you would have found the boilers and air compressors that powered the machinery for the battery and mines.

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Remains of the Woodstock Battery, note the water wheel for powering the stamping machine.
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Woodstock battery.
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These can be found lying all along the route, heavy cast iron crushers for pulverising the quartz.
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Woodstock battery.
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To increase yields potassium cyanide was used to remove even the smallest particles of gold and silver from the ore.

Once the ore had been crushed in the upper levels of the battery the fine powder that resulted was subjected to the cyanide process.  This involved mixing potassium cyanide with the finely crushed ore in tanks for several days then drawing off the solution and passing it through wooden boxes where the dissolved gold and silver precipitated as a black sludge on zinc shavings.  The sludge was then treated with sulphuric acid to remove the zinc.  The residue was then smelted into bullion bars (of gold and silver)” – From the above information board.

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Remains of the tanks where the powdered ore would be treated with cyanide.

 

One of the main features of the Windows Walk is the tramway, part of which goes through the side of the gorge (a torch is a must if you do this walk).  In its heyday, the ore was transported via tram but because of the steep sides of the gorge a trail had to be cut out of  and through the rockface.

A bit further on from the modern suspension bridge is the remains of the Crown  Mine.

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The entrance to the Crown Mine
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Drawing showing the extent of the Crown Mine in the Waitawheta Gorge.
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Side view of the mine workings through the gorge.
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The now peaceful view which was once dominated by the Crown Mine operations.

Today goldmining in the area is representated by the large open cast mine in nearby Waihi with the now defunct Cornish Pumphouse from the earlier 19th Century Martha Mine standing ever watchful over.

 

For more information –

Department of Conservation – Karangahake Gorge

Ohinemure Regional History Journal – Historic Karangahake Gorge

Waihi – Gold Discovery Centre

Waihi –  History and Heritage