“The village of Zennor, about a quarter of a mile distant (from Morvah), lies in a wild and stony district. Within the very interesting church are some quaint bench ends, one which depicts a mermaid…” (The Cornish Riviera 1911)
Zennor is a small but perfectly formed village nestled into the rugged landscape of west Penwith. It has an air of having been around since the beginning of time and a quick survey of the surrounding landscape would seem to confirm this. The ancient past is all around you in this part of Cornwall, whether it is the stone walls that snake across the land, the portal dolmens dating back to the Neolithic or the remains of circular huts with dates in the Bronze and Iron Ages.
But perhaps the most well known aspect of Zennor is its connection with mermaids. In the church there is an ancient oak bench, which at one end has carved into it a mermaid holding a comb in one hand and a mirror in the other (the mirror is sometimes referred to either as a quince or a pomegranate). As with all matters in this land of stories there is a legend attached to the chair.
“One Christmas morning, long ago, so the local tradition runs, the mermaid came to the church, attracted by the marvellous singing of the squire’s son, a handsome youth, who considered by the ladies of Zennor the most desirable “future husband” in the district. Moreover, so the story goes, the mermaid changed herself into a beautiful human maid wearing a gown of woven silver filament, which gave off a bright incandescence, and sitting beside the squire’s son she cast a spell on him. Suddenly a terrific storm raged around the church and several flashes of lightening zigzagged at the windows, filling the church with a blinding glare. The storm only lasted a few moments, and when it had abated the mermaid had vanished – and so had the squire’s son.” (Cornwall by R. Thurston Hopkins date unknown).
There are a few variations on this version but the essentials stay the same. In the official pamphlet from the church at Zennor the legend tells “…how a beautiful young woman in a long dress used to sit at the back of the church listening to the singing of a chorister, Matthew Trewhella. One evening she succeeded in luring him down to the stream which runs through the village. Together they went down the stream and into the sea at Pendour Cove, now known as Mermaid’s Cove. It is said that if you listen carefully on warm summer’s evening you can hear the pair of lovers singing together.”
It is believed that the carved chair which commemorates this story dates back to the late Medieval some five to six hundred years ago. Stories of mermaids go back centuries, the first record of a mermaid tradition comes from the Assyrians and in Ancient Greece the mermaid was the symbol of Aphrodite who was not only the goddess of love but also the sea. Tumultuous and unpredictable, both can be said of the sea and love. In many stories surrounding mermaids they are both beautiful/kind and ugly/evil – the two sides of the same coin.
It is not surprising then to learn that in the churchyard at Zennor there are many unmarked graves of unknown sailors who died during shipwrecks on this perilous stretch of coastline. The sea can be both kind and bounteous but can turn in an instant taking life without remorse.
“It is a fact that, to this day, the women of the choir at Zennor sit between the male choristers and the church porch, and this, the village people say, is to protect their menfolk from the wiles of seductive “merry maidens”.” (R. Thurston Hopkins)
During the Middle Ages the mermaid appears in carvings at churches around the UK, becoming a symbol for the evils of lust, the fishy tail reminiscent of the scales on a serpent providing a link to the idea of ‘original sin’. The mirror and the comb features in many depictions and are sometimes regarded as symbols of the mermaids (and thus female) vanity and it is through vanity that sin occurs.
Throughout time men have gone to sea to make their fortune or simply to provide for their families, it is a fact that some have never returned leaving families behind wondering what had happened to their menfolk. Perhaps the legend is born from a truth – the mermaid is the capricious sea – a beautiful woman who lures men away often never to be seen again. Is it not said that the sea is a ‘harsh mistress’?
Other Point of Interest in Zennor
The Church itself is dedicated to St Senara – the earliest record of a church here dates to 1150 AD but the circular shape of the churchyard and the 6th century saints name would indicate that there has been a church here from around the earlier date. St Senara is often associated with the legend of Princess Asenara of Brittany who married King Goello. Her stepmother was jealous of her beauty and accused her of infidelity condemning her to be burnt however when it was found that she was pregnant her gaolers nailed her into a barrel and set her to sea. It is said the child was born in the barrel and named Budoc, eventually the barrel washed up onto the Irish coast and Asenara and Budoc stayed for awhile. As in all good stories King Goello discovered the truth of the matter and Asenara returned to Brittany with Budoc via Cornwall. Along the way they founded the parishes of Zennor and Budoc (near Falmouth).
Within the church there are two fonts, one is Norman in date and the other is 13th/14th century in date and is still in use today.
In 1270 the church was appropriated by the Provost and Canons of Glasney College, at this time much of it was rebuilt. The builders were housed in what is now ‘The Tinners Arms’, the local pub which was built in 1271. In 1450 the tower and north aisle were added to the church.
Apart from all the great scenic walks (‘the coffin way’ to St Ives being one) around the area there is also a working water wheel and local museum – ‘The Wayside Folk Museum’. This is a private museum of rural and local artefacts with everything from stone axeheads dating from the Neolithic to farm implements from the 18th century.
NB – It has come to my attention that The Wayside Folk Museum has closed and was sold recently (2016).